Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The future communicator free essay sample

In just 4 years since Volkswagen (VW) set up its India operations, it had captured a 3. 6% market share something the Detroit giants had not been able to do after more than a decade in the country (Exhibit 1). VW was the flagship brand of the Volkswagen group, which also owned Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, SEAT, and Skoda. In India, the group was present with Skoda, Audi, and VW. 1 Maik Stephan, Managing Director, Volkswagen Group Sales India said: While three brands give us the collective power, we have to be careful to market them uniquely so that we are not chasing the same customer. In 2011, the group’s worldwide revenues and net profit were Euro 159 billion and 15. 8 billion, respectively. Headquartered in Wolfsburg, Germany, the group operated more than 60 plants around the world. It was the second largest automaker behind General Motors. It had a market share of 12. 3% in 2011. Its core markets were Germany and China. We will write a custom essay sample on The future communicator or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It was the market leader in Europe with a 20% market share. It aimed to become the world’s largest automaker by 2018. With a growth of 30% in the Indian automobile industry, India was to play an important role in realizing the group’s global ambitions. VW targeted to increase the market share of its flagship brand in India from 3. 6% to 5% by 2015. Neeraj Garg, Director, VW Group Sales India said: We have to transition from launch stage to growth stage of the life cycle. To meet our ambitious growth plans, we need to evolve our marketing strategy. Perhaps, we should review it. Are our segmentation, targeting, and positioning right? Is our product, distribution, and communication strategy appropriate to catapult us to the next level? Volkswagen has had a tradition of highly creative advertising globally. Its campaign ‘‘Force’’ for Passat was adjudged the best campaign of 2011 by Advertising Age. 2 The campaign featured a kid in Darth Vader costume (Darth Vader is the central character in the Star Wars saga) trying to use ‘‘force’’ (a metaphysical power in the fictional universe of the Star Wars galaxy) on everything from his dog to the washing machine to his sandwich all in vain. As he focuses all his energy on Passat, the car suddenly starts to the astonishment of the kid. A shot showed that the car was started by his father using a remote control. The campaigns connect with the popular culture of Star Wars resulted in 31 million views on YouTube. ‘‘Think small’’ and ‘‘Lemon’’ campaigns had become part of advertising textbooks. Lutz Kothe, Head of Marketing PR, VW Group Sales India said: What inspiration can VW Indian advertising draw from its global advertising? FROM GERMANY TO INDIA The German auto industry in 1930s was largely composed of luxury cars. Since many Germans could not afford luxury cars, Adolf Hitler set up a state-owned factory ‘‘Volkswagen’’ (pronounced as folk’s wagon) in Wolfsburg in 1933 for producing the ‘‘people’s car. Ferdinand Porsche, an engineer was chosen to steer the project. The first car that was rolled out was ‘‘Beetle. ’’ With its distinctive round shape and low price, it stood out from the big cars and became a global cult. In the 1970s, Passat, Scirocco, Golf, and Polo were launched. The sedan version of Golf 1 2 The remaining brands were imported by independent dealers. Advertising Age was the leading magazine in the domain of advertising. Seema Gupta, Assistant Professor of Marketing prepared this case for class discussion. This case is not intended to serve as an endorsement, source of primary data, or to show effective or inefficient handling of decision or business processes. Copyright ? 2013 by the Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. No part of the publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise (including internet) without the permission of Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. This document is authorized for use only by Paul Boutilier at University of Prince Edward Island until December 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Volkswagen in India Page 2 of 33 Jetta was launched in 1983 and Phaeton in 2002. Thereafter, New Beetle was launched to recreate the magic of the original Beetle. The group entered India in 2001 with Skoda. Its plant in Aurangabad assembled a few models of Audi and Volkswagen as well. Audi and Volkswagen were launched in India in 2004 and 2007, respectively. In 2010, a stateof-the-art production facility was set up at Chakan near Pune with an investment of Rs. 35 billion to manufacture Polo and Vento indigenously. The plant also manufactured Skoda Fabia and Skoda Rapid as they were built on the Polo platform. Despite sharing common product platforms, the three brands were distinctly positioned. Skoda was positioned as less premium than VW which was positioned as more premium than even Honda and Toyota. Audi was positioned at par with BMW and Mercedes in the luxury category (see Exhibit 2 for positioning of various players). While the group integrated the back-end of technology, human resource, and finance across the three brands, the front-end of dealers was scrupulously kept separate. Despite its careful planning, there existed an anomaly. Skoda was perceived to be a more up-market label than VW in India. This was owing to Skoda’s history in India. Skoda was launched in 2001 with the Octavia, a premium car. The only other choices in the segment at that time were Honda City, Hyundai Accent, and Maruti Baleno. Octavia immediately became a CEO’s car. Subsequent brands Laura and Superb were even more premium and since they were diesel engines, they were more expensive than their Japanese petrol-engine counterparts. John Chacko, Group President and MD, VW Group Sales India said: Our priority is to get the core brand Volkswagen sorted out and then the other brands will fall into place. For instance, after Polo was launched, the price of Skoda Fabia was revised downwards. iii VW believed in engineering excellence. It pioneered ‘‘turbocharged diesel injection’’ (TDI) which provided fuel economy and BlueMotion Technologies which enabled energy efficiency. 3 It had obsessive focus on quality. For instance, the bumpers had seven layers of paint (most carmakers had four); it welded all the points on the dashboard simultaneously to leave no room for misalignment (this required more machines; other carmakers welded the points sequentially). VW combined engineering excellence with local market insights to crack open the emerging markets. CONSUMER INSIGHTS Each year, the product planning team in VW engaged with 200 consumers in a freewheeling chat. Product Head Product Planning Training, VW Group Sales India said: When you sit in the consumer’s drawing room, you get a flavor of his life. You can see whether he prefers a Samsung or a Sony or an LG. You can gauge his tastes and lifestyle. Buying Motives VW research showed that a consumer bought a car for three motives. First was to signal to peers and parents that he had made it in life and was not a failure. Second was for utility protection from rains, extreme weather, and weekend family outings. Third was for personal space, as people in metros lived in small houses with joint families car was his little dungeon and hideout. VW incorporated these consumer insights in its marketing strategy. To tap into the first motive, it positioned itself as an aspirational brand. To build aspiration, it followed a top-down strategy it entered the Indian market with higherend models such as Passat and Jetta and then introduced lower-end models such as Polo and Vento. Product Head said: Honda entered the Indian market with Honda City, whereas Hyundai with Santro. Both have a wide portfolio, but Hyundai is seen as an accessible brand, whereas Honda as an aspirational brand. It is because first impression is what remains with the consumer. Blue was the corporate color and motion stood for mobility. This document is authorized for use only by Paul Boutilier at University of Prince Edward Island until December 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [emailprotected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Volkswagen in India Page 3 of 33 VW tapped into the second motive of utility by having functionality at the core of technology. For instance, its BlueMotion Technologies had several utilitarian features such as ‘‘park assist’’ wherein the car could park itself. VW addressed the third motive of space by designing spacious cars. It provided light interiors and striped fabrics which gave the impression of open spaces. Product Head said: Indians are claustrophobic. They need lot of open spaces. For Indians, house is anyways a compromise as it is inherited or is constrained by budget. The consumer hence does not want to compromise on his car. Consumer Attitude The product planning team researched consumer attitude toward cars. The Product Head said: Consumer treated the car as his muse. There is a lot of boredom that sets into the life of a sober man. He marries the girl suggested by parents, lives in the same city, and works for the same family business. He brings change through two things car and mobile. Those are his mistresses. He changes car every 3-4 years. The latest car would be his muse, his loved one. The product planning team at VW utilizes this insight to offer ‘‘wow’’ features which would make the car his most coveted muse. Consumer also likens the car to arranged marriage. He chooses car just as he chooses his wife based on looks. Later he falls in love with his car just as he fell in love with his wife for the way it treats him space, comfort, controls, driving experience, and cooling. The product planners leverage this insight to put experience enhancing features in the cars. For instance, the New Passat had ‘‘auto start-stop’’ in which the engine automatically turned off when one took the foot off the clutch after halting in a traffic jam or a red light. When one depressed the clutch again, the engine started automatically. PRODUCT PLANNING VW leveraged these consumer insights to design cars suitable for Indian consumers. For instance, cars had flat space on the dashboard for placing Ganesh idols, had liberal sprinkling of chrome (Indians loved chrome) and a lever behind the co-driver’s seat so that the passenger could push the seat oneself (Indian cars were chauffeur-driven so the co-driver’s seat was often vacant). VW decided which features to incorporate in the car based on four filters. First, was the customer willing to pay for it and how much? Second, what would it cost the company? Third, how easily could it be implemented from an engineering point of view? Fourth, could it be translated into a nice communication story? Product planners identified consumers’ willingness to pay for innovative features through gut feel and by asking a few friends. For standard features, VW used quantitative market research. They were careful not to over-engineer the cars with specifications that consumers were not willing to pay for. Product Head said: For European markets, VW cars had strong roofs that could bear the weight of 18 inches of snow. But, in India you don’t need it. Since the lead time for new product development was 3-4 years, product planners anticipated trends by considering socio-economic factors. The Product Head said: The cost of chauffeur would become very high in future, but the commutes would get longer, the traffic would worsen and the jobs become more demanding. The consumer would thus be ready to pay more for automatic transmission. So, automatic transmission would become the norm in metros and hence VW has started planning for producing more of them. Music CDs would disappear and so VW is considering knocking off CD players and keeping only USB port.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

-334010385445 Essays - Psychiatry, Psychiatric Diagnosis

-334010385445 A Critique Submitted by Ashlie King Tiffin University PSY 501 Dr. Blaylock Fall 201711540067000 A Critique Submitted by Ashlie King Tiffin University PSY 501 Dr. Blaylock Fall 2017 centerbottom 1154000 center790007945755 1154000 Abstract Schizophrenia is a disorder th at affects the brain and how a person thinks or acts. It is a known fact that genetics and family history may play a role in physical illnesses, but can the same thing be said about mental illnesses? If a parent or grand-parent suffers from mental illness, such as depression or schizophrenia, how high are the chances that the child may suffer? I wonder if I would have the propensity to show any traits or signs of psychosis because of a distant relative's experience. More importantly, how will others view me? This paper is a critique of an article on schizophrenia. The article that I chose records a study conducted in China. The purpose of this study was to measure the stigma on the people in Guangzhou, China who suffer from schizophrenia. 384 people with schizophrenia were selected and evaluated. Statistics and the correlation between medication compliance and insight were used for this study. The research revealed that the people with schizophrenia were stigmatized. A Critique Submitted by Ashlie King Schizophrenia is surrounded by stigma. People who have schizophrenia face being feared and discriminated against. Another factor is the way schizophrenia is portrayed in the media and in societytelevision shows, books, and even the way people describe and refer to schizophrenics (calling them crazy or "schizo"). This paper will be a critique on an article about research on schizophrenia. Research , where random people were chosen, was conducted in Guangzhou, China, to investigate the stigma faced by people with schizophrenia . Section 1: The article, titled " Stigma and Discrimination Experienced by People with Schizophrenia Living in The C ommunity in Guangzhou, China ", described a study involving people from different areas in China who were suffering from schizophrenia. This study used what is called the Guangzhou Mental Health Model , which provided community health services and worked to end the stigma on mental illness (Li et al, 2017). It was conducted at the Guangzhou Huiai Hospital (or Guangzhou Brain Hospital) , a very old hospital that treated patients with mental illness. The focus of the study was to determine the stigmas and assumptions of schizophrenia, and determine any factors that may be associated with the stigma (Li et al, 2017). Another purpose of this study was to further investigate how Chinese society views schizophrenia. The aim of the research was to determine if schizophrenics in China were viewed as dangerous. Participants were selected rando mly , but the y had to meet certain criteria before they were considered for the study. For example, participants must be between the ages of 18-50, be stable, and have an education (Li et al, 2017) . They could not participate if they were hospitalized due to substance abuse , were pregnant, or there was a risk of violence or suicide (Li et al, 2017). The study ran from April to July and each participant gave written consent (Li et al, 2017). One reason that some patients were excluded was that their clinical diagnosis was not schizophrenia, even though it was listed as such. The patients' symptom levels and quality of life were measured in the study. Section 2: The researchers used various scales in their study. These scales had distinct functions . The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale measured symptoms associated with schizophrenia (Li et al, 2017). This scale measured depressive and psychotic symptoms, both which are possible symptoms of schizophrenia. The BPRS was used to investigate the level of depression and how high the possibility of a psychotic episode was. Another scale that was used was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. This scale tested positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. For example, negative symptoms included emotional withdrawal and motor retardation and positive symptoms included hallucinations and unusual thoughts (Li et al, 2017). The Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale , which assessed the quality of life, was another scale used in the st udy. With this scale, the lower the score, the better the quality

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Battle of Charleroi in World War I

Battle of Charleroi in World War I The Battle of Charleroi was fought August 21-23, 1914, during the opening days of World War I (1914-1918) and was part of a series of engagements collectively known as the Battle of the Frontiers (August 7-September 13, 1914). With the start of World War I, the armies of Europe began mobilizing and moving towards the front. In Germany, the army commenced implementing a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan. The Schlieffen Plan Conceived by Count Alfred von Schlieffen in 1905, the plan was designed for a two-front war against France and Russia. Following their easy victory over the French in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, Germany saw France as less of a threat than its larger neighbor to the east. As a result, Schlieffen sought to mass the bulk of Germanys military might against France with the goal of winning a quick victory before the Russians could fully mobilize their army. With France eliminated, Germany would be able to focus their attention to the east (Map). Predicting that France would attack across the border into Alsace and Lorraine, which had been ceded following the earlier conflict, the Germans intended to violate the neutrality of Luxembourg and Belgium to attack the French from the north in a large-scale battle of encirclement. German troops were to defend along the border while the right wing of the army swept through Belgium and past Paris in an effort to crush the French army.   French Plans In the years prior to the war, General Joseph Joffre, Chief of the French General Staff, moved to update his nations war plans for a conflict with Germany. Though he initially desired to create a plan that had French forces attack through Belgium, he was later unwilling to violate that nations neutrality. Instead, he and his staff designed Plan XVII which called for French troops to mass along the German border and mount attacks through the Ardennes and into Lorraine. Armies Commanders: French General Charles LanrezacFifth Army Germans General Karl von  Bà ¼low  General Max von HausenSecond Third Armies Early Fighting With the beginning of the war, the Germans aligned the First through Seventh Armies, north to south, to execute the Schlieffen Plan. Entering Belgium on August 3, First and Second Armies drove back the small Belgian Army but were slowed by the need to reduce the fortress city of Liege.   Receiving reports of German activity in Belgium, General Charles Lanrezac, commanding the Fifth Army at the northern end of the French line, alerted Joffre that the enemy was advancing in unexpected strength.   Despite Lanrezacs warnings, Joffre moved forward with Plan XVII and an attack into Alsace.   This and a second effort in Alsace and Lorraine were both pushed back by the German defenders (Map).      To the north, Joffre had planned to launch an offensive with the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Armies but these plans were overtaken by events in Belgium. On August 15, after lobbying from Lanrezac, he directed Fifth Army north into the angle formed by the Sambre and Meuse Rivers. Hoping to gain the initiative, Joffre ordered Third and Fourth Armies to attack through the Ardennes against Arlon and Neufchateau.   Advancing on August 21, they encountered the German Fourth and Fifth Armies and were badly defeated. As the situation along the front developed, Field Marshal Sir John Frenchs British Expeditionary Force (BEF) disembarked and began assembling at Le Cateau.   Communicating with the British commander, Joffre requested that French to cooperate with Lanrezac on the left. Along the Sambre Responding to Joffres order to move north, Lanrezac positioned his Fifth Army south of the Sambre extending from the Belgian fortress city of Namur in the east to just past the mid-size industrial town of Charleroi in the west. His I Corps, led by General Franchet dEsperey, extended the right south behind the Meuse. To his left, the cavalry corps of General Jean-Franà §ois Andrà © Sordet linked Fifth Army to Frenchs BEF.   On August 18, Lanrezac received additional instructions from Joffre directing him to attack north or east depending upon the enemys location. Seeking to locate General Karl von  Bà ¼lows Second Army, Lanrezacs cavalry moved north of the Sambre but were unable to penetrate the German cavalry screen.   Early on August 21, Joffre, increasingly aware of the size of German forces in Belgium, directed Lanrezac to attack when opportune and arranged for the BEF to provide support. On the Defensive Though he received this directive, Lanrezac adopted a defensive position behind the Sambre but failed to establish heavily-defended bridgeheads north the river. Additionally, due to poor intelligence regarding the bridges over the river, several were left completely undefended. Attacked later in the day by the lead elements of Bà ¼lows army, the French were pushed back over the river. Though ultimately held, the Germans were able to establish positions on the south bank. Bà ¼low assessed the situation and requested that General Freiherr von Hausens Third Army, operating to east, join in the attack on Lanrezac with the goal of executing a pincer. Hausen agreed to strike west the next day.   On the morning of August 22, Lanrezacs corps commanders, on their own initiative, launched attacks north in an effort to throw the Germans back over the Sambre. These proved unsuccessful as nine French divisions were unable to dislodge three German divisions. The failure of these attacks cost Lanrezac high ground in the area while a gap between his army and Fourth Army began to open on his right (Map).   Responding, Bà ¼low renewed his drive south with three corps without waiting for Hausen to arrive. As the French resisted these assaults, Lanrezac withdrew dEspereys corps from the Meuse with the intent of using it to strike Bà ¼lows left flank on August 23. Holding through the day, the French again came under attack the next morning. While the corps to the west of Charleroi was able to hold, those to the east in the French center, despite mounting an intense resistance, began to fall back.   As I Corps moved into position to strike  Bà ¼lows flank, the lead elements of Hausens army began crossing the Meuse.   A Desperate Situation Recognizing the dire threat this posted, dEsperey counter-marched his men towards their old positions.   Engaging Hausens troops, I Corps checked their advance but could not push them back across the river. As night fell, Lanrezacs position was increasingly desperate as a Belgian division from Namur had retreated into his lines while Sordets cavalry, which had reached a state of exhaustion, needed to be withdrawn. This opened a 10-mile gap between Lanrezacs left and the British. Further west, Frenchs BEF had fought the  Battle of Mons. A tenacious defensive action, the engagement around Mons had seen the British inflict heavy losses on the Germans before being forced to give ground. By late afternoon, French had ordered his men to begin falling back. This exposed Lanrezacs army to greater pressure on both flanks. Seeing little alternative, he began making plans to withdraw south.   These were quickly approved by Joffre. In the fighting around Charleroi, the Germans sustained around 11,000 casualties while the French incurred approximately 30,000. Aftermath: Following the defeats at Charleroi and Mons, French and British forces began a long, fighting retreat south towards Paris. Holding actions or failed counterattacks were conducted at Le Cateau (August 26-27) and St. Quentin (August 29-30), while Mauberge fell September 7 after a brief siege. Creating a line behind the Marne River, Joffre prepared to make a stand to save Paris. Stabilizing the situation, Joffre began the First Battle of the Marne on September 6 when a gap was found between the German First and Second Armies. Exploiting this, both formations were soon threatened with destruction.   In these circumstances, the German Chief of Staff, Helmuth von Moltke, suffered a nervous breakdown. His subordinates assumed command and ordered a general retreat to the Aisne River.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Macroeconomics in unemployment Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Macroeconomics in unemployment - Research Paper Example This paper is the best example of the thorough examination of such important macroeconomic factor as unemployment. People are considered to be unemployed when they are not actively doing productive work Unemployment rates are volatile and the other macroeconomic indicators play significant roles. Unemployment is a macroeconomic factor that is highly determined by other macroeconomic factors and its effects are widely felt across an economy. Several types of unemployment exist but four are majorly explored. The first one is seasonal unemployment that occurs due to differing needs of the hiring industries. Firms will hire employees during peak seasons when more production is required and retrench some of their employees during low seasons. The second type of unemployment is frictional employment and arises due to shifting of jobs by workers. It is also referred to as search unemployment because it normally takes time for an individual to secure a job after quitting one or after finishing their studies. Structural unemployment is another type and is caused by changes in technology and the structure of the economy. The fourth unemployment type is referred to as cyclical unemployment and results from changes in business environments It is important for an economy to maintain low rates of unemployment. The most important reason for this is economic consequences of unemployment such as the measure of the lost goods and services that the unemployed population could be contributing to the economy had they been employed. The scope of unemployment identifies wide initiatives such as governments’ monetary and fiscal policies to influence economic activities and other macroeconomic indicators towards sustainable employments rates. ... Low interest rates encourage borrowings for investments and private use. This further increases consumption and facilitates investment as firms are encouraged explore investment opportunities. This â€Å"redirect output towards its full –employment potential† (Stoup, Sobel, & Macpherson, 2009, p. 227). High interest rates from factors such as inflation or increased demand for financial services make investment expensive. The overall impact of the increased interest rates is therefore a contracted economy with lost employment opportunities towards higher unemployment rates (Stoup, Sobel, & Macpherson, 2009). There also exists a significant association between unemployment and an economy’s gross domestic product. The gross domestic product refers to the measure of all goods and services produced by an economy within a period, normally a year. Changes in the GDP will therefore reflect conditions of the labour market because the labour force generates realized produc tions. A fall in gross domestic product indicates a rise in the rate of unemployment, whether real or virtual. This occurs because if businesses resort to producing fewer goods and services, then some of the workers lose their jobs hence rise in unemployment. An increase in gross domestic product however associated with increased activity levels that further indicate lower unemployment rates (Mankiw, 2012). Unemployment also relates to consumer price index, a measure of the change in price of goods and services that are bought by individual consumers. The index also keeps track of changes in the cost of living. Low unemployment rates increase average economic potentials and this changes the consumer price

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Propose a Research Method and Design - Propose and Justify Research Paper

Propose a Method and Design - Propose and Justify Method and Design - Research Paper Example More broadly will be based on three key motivations: 1. To study the impacts of high energy costs in the information and technology sector as well as the significance of adopting cloud computing technologies in the management of data centers. 2. To investigate the underlying concept behind cloud computing and the relations between various data virtualization techniques and other emerging technologies. 3. To determine the potential benefits of moving data centers to the cloud both in small and large organizations. The research will also seek to explore the potential use of cloud computing in the reduction of carbon emissions. Lastly, the research will also involve investigate the associated risks of adopting the use of cloud data centers as well as some of the available remedies to such risks. Research questions Generally the three main research questions are designed to bring light on some of the greater issues associated with the adopting of cloud data centers. 1. What are the curre nt implications of high energy costs in the information sector and what is the potential significance of using cloud computing technologies to lower energy consumption? 2. What is the concept behind cloud computing and data virtualization? 3. ... For example, the selection of the respondents will be achieved by mapping out individuals who are either directly or indirectly engaged in the information and communication technology sector. For example, the chosen respondents who will participate in the research will primarily be selected from social groups and individuals who are working or participating in the ICT industry and are therefore well informed of the recent technological developments such as cloud computing. Interviews and questionnaires will then be conducted to determine their individual experiences with both the traditional data centers and the emerging virtual private cloud servers. Before administering interviews or questionnaires for the research, pilot tests will first be carried out, validated and checked to determine the reliability of the research methodology and design (Creswell, 43). Lastly, the questionnaires and interview questions will be developed based on the how the collected data and responses will b e analyzed as well as how they are related to the main research questions. Interviews A purposeful sampling strategy will be used to select 20 respondents are required to participate in the research. Some of the potential individuals that will be selected to participate in the research include computer entrepreneurs, business managers and members of private data centers as well as their friends and families. The selected participants will then be divided into four groups of five respondents each. This will make it easier to compare the experiences of various respondents in relation to the topic of study. To minimize potential research biasness, both structured and semi structured interviews will

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Lakewood WA Police Department Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Lakewood WA Police Department - Essay Example It successfully communicates with people from different backgrounds and also provides vital information, advice, and any time police assistance. Unlike the other police forces, Lakewood Police Department is unique for its objectives and functions. Lakewood police force is specially made for the enforcement of civil and criminal laws, holding the position of court compliance office and community service office, animal control, juvenile code enforcement etc. As per the ordinance No. 00471, the Police Department operates under the direction of City’s Chief Law Enforcement Officer, the Chief of Police, subject to the supervision of the City Manager. The Chief of the Police is appointed by the City Manager in accordance with the law and policies of city of Lakewood. In accordance with the relevant laws all other subordinates shall be appointed by the Chief (Ordinance No. 00471.City Council meeting minutes of March 17 2008). According to the regulation in Lakewood police, there are five office assistants, two evidence custodians, one crime analyst, one fleet manager, one evidence supervisor, one administrative assistant, one administrative supervisor and one administrative lieutenant all of whom contribute to the daily workings of the department (Administrative Unit). However the strength of the whole department has increased in the 21st century: â€Å"Lakewood’s 21st century department has 131 staff members, 105 commissioned , 12.5 community service officers, 2 animal control officers and 13.5 civilian support staff† (About the Department). The Department is divided in to several divisions for its smooth functioning. Among them Criminal Investigation Unit is one of the outstanding wings which includes Robbery Assault Unit, Special Assault Unit, Special Operations Unit and The School Resource Officer Program. Crime against persons like murder, robbery, kidnapping and missing cases come under the Robbery/Assault unit. The Special Assault

Friday, November 15, 2019

Role of the Media in Political Conflict Resolution

Role of the Media in Political Conflict Resolution An Analysis of the Media’s role in Political Conflict Resolution   Abwino Kumchenga CHAPTER THREE  III. METHODOLOGY The study was aimed at analyzing the role that the media can play in efforts to resolve conflicts incited by politicians. It was based on the Libertarian theory of  Ã‚  Communication  to vary what the media has to do in times when the conflict has risen to try to bring about mutual understanding among the various groups that may not be in good terms at a particular moment. Studies were conducted that involved people working in the media sector both private as well as public media houses including the actual people affected by such conflicts on the ground. Theoretical Framework This research was centered on media houses and personalities role in resolving political conflicts through their various ways that they can play in the process of resolving such conflicts, therefore it will focus on the communication theory of Libertarianism. Media has absolute freedom of expression, media as a watchdog, the press’ attacks on government policies are accepted and even encouraged but it is accountable (Roderick Long: philosopher). Other studies have shown how the state abuses the broadcasting sector in Malawi especially the two state broadcasting entities, MBC radios 1, 2 and Television, situations that eventually lead to political confusion as it is the norm among the different parties that have so far run the Malawi government. This development has seen to it that the state broadcaster usually becomes the mouthpiece for the party ruling the country at any particular time. This has been observed through the kinds of programming and how the content in such progr ams is perceived by the public. However, private media houses are not exempted in this matter, as far as the state broadcaster has to a larger extent been pro government in terms of programming, there have been others that have been highly anti government and have done their work to address political needs of opposition parties that are either affiliated to such stations or simply because the general public has in mind the fact that even if they may try to approach the public broadcaster for political advertisement, they cannot be treated just the same as private media houses can. â€Å"The obstacles facing journalism in Malawi are many, but by far the largest problem is that of political interference in the work of the media. Politicians currently control over 90% of Malawi’s media. The sole television station is state-owned and is very much under the control of politicians from the political party in power. Not surprisingly, the news content on TV Malawi is biased towards the ruling party. For example, the station runs a weekly programme called â€Å"Know your Member of Parliament†. Ever since it started last July, only MPs from the party in power have been featured, though the present Malawi Parliament has about the same number of MPs on the ruling side as in the opposition. The national radio station is worse. On it, low key party functionaries from the ruling side are allowed to castigate their opponents and glorify the Head of State. Opposition parties are not allowed a similar chance, thereby denying them the right to reply.† (Kumwe nda, 1999)  All this should not be part of METHODOLY. Find  another section appropriate for this information. Am thinking  Liturature  Review. Type of Design and the Assumptions that underlie it This study was based on qualitative research design and partly utilized the quantitative method to achieve the results of the case under study. It was the researcher’s assumption that since the study was on the role that can be played, it highly involved views of such personalities from different media houses like Zodiak Broadcasting Station’s political department, former employees of the Malawi Broadcasting Corporation, and on the other hand were some employees from Blantyre Newspapers Limited. Not only were the views of such personalities utilized but also the views from the public at a selected site in Lilongwe Rural for validation purposes to the expected results. It is in this line that the quantitative research approach found its sole importance in the study as it was used to vary the figures arrived at in the process of coming up with the results through the various interviews that were conducted. Role of the Researcher The researcher is a qualified personality as far as conducting of this study was concerned. The main role of the researcher was to find out through this study, the role that the media can play in the process of political conflict resolution in regard to the fact that it is through the media that different political parties voice out their ideas to the public. Hence the media has a better stand when it comes to contact with such people and can be the right choice for intervention on political conflicts or misunderstandings. It should be noted that the researcher conducted this study as a partial fulfillment for obtaining a Bachelor of Arts degree in Mass Communication at the African Bible College. The researcher assumes that the people who were interviewed or asked to fill prepared questionnaires gave the necessary information since they were believed to be professionals in the field. And also the other group that was questioned from the general public was also expected to give the de sired information as they are the ones affected mostly by the issues that arise due to the misunderstandings that the main players in the political arena undertake. Selection and Description of the Study Sites and Participants The researcher intends to conduct structured interviews, at the highest level of the interviewees were several media house personalities in a bid to collect the necessary data for the study. The other level of interviews will be in a form of Questionnaires that will be prepared to collect data from groups with varying ages at Church level at Kaning’a CCAP in area 47. This is the way most of the data was collected through people’s participation in their responses to the questionnaires. The age groups were structured in terms of youths and adults and their gender inclusive, in order to determine the impact that the work of Journalists, media houses and the main players the politicians themselves that they have incited which has led to conflicts. Data Collection Strategies The interviews were conducted with different media house personalities ranging from those with Radio and Television work experience with private and state run stations to print media personalities to share their experiences in their work. Such data together with the data that was collected through the questionnaires that were produced and handed out to different age groups at Kaning’a CCAP Church formed the largest part of the data for this research. The data collected from the people at the church was treated as first hand information from the public itself hence not only getting the facts from the media itself but also those people on whom all those actions determined by politicians and the media falls on, that is those that get affected by the decisions made by those with the power to speak out in whatever way they can through the media, be it through the Radio, Television and also the print media and in this case the newspaper in particular. Data Analysis Strategies To analyze the data that was collected, SPSS statistical software will be utilized, in addition to that, Microsoft Excel will also be used to assess the findings. Basing on the outcomes of the findings, the researcher dwelt much on analyzing and eventually interpreting the data as collected from the respondents both at the highest and the second level of interviews. It is from the analysis of the collected data that conclusions will be made about the opinions and facts as heard from the respondents through the interviews and questionnaires that were prepared in the course of conducting this study. Methods of Achieving Validity To prove the validity of the data collected in this study, the statistical software used in this research (SPSS), (Microsoft Excel) will be fed with the data. After feeding the computer software with the information, it will therefore with its capability prove whether the collected data will be valid or not, be it in terms of its collection or the approaches used to arrive at the desired data in this process.  Sort out your margin for this section REFERENCES Kumwenda Peter(1999). Politics and the Media in Southern Africa. Durbun, South Africa.  Konrad Adenaeur Foundation. CHAPTER FIVE  V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Discussion In this section, the researcher’s emphasis is on the incorporation of what other writers have written about in their books and papers as recorded by the researcher in the literature review section of this study with the information that was found and decisions arrived at in the process of data collection for this study. From the responses given both by the general public as well as the people from the different media houses with regard to the guiding question that the researcher had in mind when conducting this study;  which was:  Ã‚  What  role can the media in Lilongwe play in times of political conflict  to  help  resoluse  matters  ?. It has been the researcher’s observation from the responses that yes there is a role that the media can play in trying to resolve conflicts among politicians and also help to avoid inciting conflicts. The general public touched on areas like being biased and not reporting fairly as some of the issues roaming around the media circle which brings about misunderstandings and confusion among the general public but the people themselves hoped that things can change for the better if the media practitioners can conduct themselves in a proper manner and also through fair means of reporting whatever they may be expected to report. Looking at what the media practitioners themselves commented when they were given a chance to speak about this topic, most of them indicated that indeed there are several roles that the media is expected to play in times when conflicts among politicians arise and they further talked about what they can even do to avoid such issues from emanating within the society because of their influence. Most of the respondents that participated were people with Radio, Television, and Print experience, these were media practitioners from the Malawi Broadcasting Corporation, Zodiak Broadcasting Station, Nkhoma Radio Station and Blantyre Print and Packaging Limited. The practitioners were most ly in agreement with each other in terms of their comments, for example the issue of reporting without taking sides and regardless of any political affiliation. This is in line with what others have written before as indicated in the literature review as Puddephatt (2006) in his  Voices of War:  Conflict and the role of the media  book writes â€Å" in addition to the representation of the groups they are reporting on – in this case parties to the conflict – journalists also present their own views and interests†, from that it has to be noted that media practitioners as human beings also have their say on whatever issues they may come across with but they need to be professional in these issues and that implies reporting matters just the way they are as they happen and keep their opinions to themselves. One interesting side that the media practitioners touched on that was related to what is in the literature reviewed by the researcher was about consulting the media ethics and code of conduct first which is a challenge for most journalists practicing their services in a country where politicians own some of the media houses. Nymnjoh (2005) in his book,  Africa’s Media, Democracy and the Politics of Belonging  added that in Southern Africa it is particularly true of Malawi, where most of the so-called independent papers that were established before the 1994 elections ‘are privately owned by opposition parties, the state, government ministers or other politicians in their personal capacities’, with the sole aim of smearing political rivals. This development may be a good one but very tricky for someone working with such media houses owned by politicians because the people in politics may indeed in some instances influence their workers in this case journalists inclusive to write or broadcast that which is of interest to them hence promoting hate journalism. In situations as such it is very crucial for an individu al working in such kind of media to stick to the codes of ethics and conduct but the issue seems to be very different with regard to Malawi where most of the times others have just given in to the needs of their bosses. The researcher was of the view that this may be so sometimes simply due to the fact that not all of the media personalities may be well trained in these issues, but as a professionally trained journalist, the researcher believes that a journalist without knowledge of the media code of ethics and conduct may not be viewed as a  well-trained  practitioner and one who is ready to go into that field. On the other hand, the researcher was of the view that of course they may have undergone such training, but since it is a job and one tries to be submissive to his or her bosses and that is why it is easy to give in and simply do as the boss wishes yet knowing from deep down their hearts that what they are doing is not right. However the researcher thinks that that can a lso be another topic of study on its own if the readers can view it well and deeply think about it. Almost all of the media practitioners that participated in this research took the view of fair reporting, reporting issues just the way they are, without exaggerating and not putting words in people’s mouths but just to let the respondents answer the way they want and not to judge things on their own but to leave it up to the audience to come up with conclusions on what they have heard through the media. Conclusion This study was conducted in order to find out the role that the media can play in times when there is already a conflict in the political arena in the city of Lilongwe and what they can do to help resolve such disputes, and specifically it was aimed at getting the views from the members of Kaning’a CCAP church and also various media practitioners from different media houses with a varied range of media experience. The results according to the responses given to the researcher through the questionnaires that were prepared showed that indeed there are several roles that are there that the media can play in trying to resolve conflicts among politicians in Lilongwe. Not only did the general public confirm that the media really stands a better chance to bring about solutions in political conflicts, but the main players, the media practitioners themselves also agreed that indeed to a greater extent there are bigger roles that people in the media can play looking at them as the bridg e between the politicians and the general public. This according to the researcher proved to be a success in itself in that what the researcher was looking for through conducting this study as guided by the main research question came to light through the responses that the people themselves gave. The correlation of the responses from the general public with those from the people practicing their services in the media showed that really there is a lot that the media is expected to work on Recommendations Having conducted the study, collecting the necessary data, analyzing the data and coming up with conclusions basing on the findings in this paper, the researcher however has several recommendations to the various media practitioners and the different media houses in Lilongwe. In as much as everybody has his or her own view in a particular story or event as it may occur, there is a greater need for the people in the media to weigh the issue at hand and present it in a manner that will be appropriate to the audience regardless of their gender, race, occupation and even political affiliation. This will help to prevent cases of violence and not only that but also the media practitioner him or herself may also end up tarnishing their own image in the industry and being someone famous this can also ruin one’s career as people will definitely associate that particular individual with such kind of behavior. It should hereby be understood that the role of a journalist is to get informa tion as quick as possible to help boost the station’s popularity, but one thing that has to be put into consideration is the fact that putting words in people’s mouths is as costly as killing someone, it has to be noted here that should one report something not factual, if the people involved in that story end up not receiving the issue well, then your own words would surely come back to you and be dealt with accordingly. It is therefore of significance to be professional in the conduct of duties as media personalities. Working in the media should never be taken as an act of simply working in order to please one’s boss but to work with an aim of serving the needs and aspirations of the intended audience at large. Media bodies that watch the actions of media houses and personalities in general need not to look upon such kind of practitioners and houses that practice their work in manners that are not professional as they are expected. A good example is what the M alawi Communications Regulatory Authority (MACRA) is currently doing as the country is drawing closer to this year’s tripartite elections, calling upon the general public to report to the body if they suspect that any media house’s conduct seems to be leaning towards the interest of specific political parties, that development is a good one since the media would thereby be held accountable for their actions as in accordance with the stipulations of the communication Act. REFERENCES Nyamnjoh Francis B (2005).  Africa’s Media, Democracy and the Politics of Belonging. Pretoria,  RSA, UNISA Press. Puddephatt Andrew (2006).  Voices of War:  Conflict and the role of the media. International  Media support.